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Within the first 15 years, Soviet Russia used veto power 56 times. The Western powers, in retaliation, have similarly abused it for their own interest. Thus Big Powers have made it impossible for the United Nations to restore peace on various occasions. Above all, the collective security is the main purpose of the UN. But, as various incidents have proved, the member-nations are more interested in their own security than in collective security as such. The relation between what Fredrick Schumann calls ‘Marx land’ and ‘Freeland’ has been far from cordial and even hostile at the end of World War II.
This was due, according to some, to the division of the world into two camps – one led by the Soviet Union and another by the U. S. A. This bi-polar interpretation of world-politics failed to take into consideration the existence of neutral nations like India, Indonesia, Egypt and other states which had disassociated themselves from joining in any one of the camps. This two camp- theory gave birth of the cold war. The cold war was kept alive by the rivalry of Soviet bloc and Western bloc to gain the hegemony of the world. The Western bloc looked upon the communist countries as totalitarian states and the neutrals as misguided.
The communist countries, on the other hand, considered the capitalists states as seeking to exploit the underdeveloped countries for profit and frantically trying to maintain their hold over areas producing raw material. Their mutually opposing views had produced rivalry in the post-World War II period which is known as cold war era. The first victim of the cold war was the United Nations organization. As soon as the giants fell out the ‘Big Five’ failed to reach agreement. The Soviet Union was the only state from the communist block.
In other word the Soviet ‘veto’ prevented the actions that the western countries desired to take on many questions. The Greek question, the Trieste issue and the question of admission of new members created much difference. It paralyzed U. N. action and by the end of 1946 it became clear that the United Nations will not be able to carry the responsibility conferred upon it by the Charter. The establishment of people’s Democracies in Eastern European countries brought with the Russian sphere of influence nearly 120 million people. The Soviet Union denounced the western powers as war mongers.
The Soviet Union was accusing the western powers of an attempt to encircle her to counteract which she entered into alliance with the People’s Democracies and strengthened her defenses and maintain peace in Europe. Warsaw Pact was coming as a reaction of NATO in the year 1955. Warsaw Pact was signed by the central and eastern European communist countries like Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Albania and Soviet Russia. Warsaw Pact had two branches – one is Political Consultative Committee (use for non military purpose) and other is Unified Command of Pact Armed Forces.
The main aim of this pact was that, if one of the member countries of this pact were attacked by the western powers then all the member countries will defend victim countries and at the same time they defend one another. The creation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) is fundamentally the outcome of fear psychology. The establishment of communist holds over Eastern Europe and the possibility of further expansion of Soviet communism produced the Western response in the NATO. It was felt by the policy-makers in U. S. A. the war-torn Europe was not in a position to act as a deterrent on the Russian shadow over the continent.
Similarly the CEATO, MEDO, ANZUS and other military groups created by America in order to resist any type of communist aggression. According to the terms of these treaties, if any of the signatories fall victim of any communist attack, others will come forward in order to prevent the aggression. These military treatise have also undermined the importance on UN, because there existence implies that the signatories have not believed on the assurance of the UN that it would guarantee collective security of any member in case of any aggression.
Conclusion It is thus amply clear that the conflicting interests of the big powers paralyzed the League of Nations. Mellowed by its sordid experience, the makers of the UN made so many improvements in the Charter of the UN. But, the conflicting ideology and political interest of the super-powers have similarly weakened the United Nations. Their self-interests have been reflected both inside and outside the UN. Naturally, it is facing the same problems which destroyed the Leagues within 20 years of its emergence.
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